The use of the database helps to match up mentees with mentors who have the type of experience and qualifications they are seeking. There are formal mentoring programs that are values-oriented, while social mentoring and other types focus specifically on career development.
Some mentorship programs provide both social and vocational support. In Metizo created the first mentoring certification for companies and business schools in order to guarantee the integrity and effectiveness of formal mentoring. Certification is attributed jointly by the organization and an external expert.
There are many kinds of mentoring relationships from school or community-based relationships to e-mentoring relationships. These mentoring relationships vary  and can be influenced by the type of mentoring relationship that is in effect. That is whether it has come about as a formal or informal relationship.
Also there are several models have been used to describe and examine the sub-relationships that can emerge.
For example, Buell describes how mentoring relationships can develop under a cloning model, nurturing model, friendship model and apprenticeship model. The cloning model is about the mentor trying to "produce a duplicate copy of him or her self. In the sub-groups of formal and informal mentoring relationships: peer mentoring relationships are relationships where individuals are at the same skill training, similar positions and stages of career. However, one person may be more knowledgeable in a certain aspect or another, but they can help each other to progress in their work.
A lot of time, peer relationships provide a lot of support, empathy and advice because the situations are quite similar. Situational mentoring : Short-term relationships in which a person mentors for a specific purpose. This could be a company bringing an expert in regarding social media, or internet safety. This expert can mentor employees to make them more knowledgeable about a specific topic or skill. Supervisory mentoring : This kind of mentoring has'go to' people who are supervisors. These are people who have answers to many questions, and can advise to take the best plan of action.
This can be a conflict of interest relationship because many supervisors do not feel comfortable also being a mentor. Mentoring circles : Participants from all levels of the organization propose and own a topic.
Often, much more easily than the truth, than correction to these stories. Unpacking the hidden discourses and technologies of power that shape truth and knowledge necessitates a rethinking of our entire worldview, and such a rethinking can be intensely uncomfortable: it requires that we examine the myriad systems that underpin what we view as the norm and how these systems privilege particular groups while marginalizing others Kumashiro, Journal of Leadership Development, 1 2 , Do you believe these ideas are best communicated within a gallery context? Creating a culture of inquiry around equity and student success. Gutman, and P. Matthew Johnson : —and find out whether it is legit.
They then meet in groups to discuss the topic, which motivates them to grow and become more knowledgeable. Flash mentoring is ideal for job shadowing, reverse mentoring, and more. Flash mentoring : Creates a low-pressure environment for mentoring that focuses on single meetings rather than a traditional, long-term mentoring relationship. Meta-analysis of individual research studies found mentoring has significant behavioral, attitudinal, health-related, relational, motivational, and career benefits.
Originally, the concept of mentoring functions was developed based on qualitative research in a organizational context with functions being subsumed under two major factors: psychosocial support e.
Especially in the workplace, there are also many benefits for an employer in developing a mentorship program for new and current employees. Career development : Setting up a career development mentoring program for employees enables an organization to help junior employees to learn the skills and behaviours from senior employees that the junior employees need to advance to higher-responsibility positions. This type of mentoring program can help to align organizational goals with employees' personal career goals of progressing within the organization.
It gives employees the ability to advance professionally and learn more about their work. This collaboration also gives employees a feeling of engagement with the organization, which can lead to better retention rates and increased employee satisfaction.
High potential mentoring : The most talented employees in organizations tend to be difficult to retain, as they are usually seeking greater challenges and responsibilities, and they are likely to leave for a different organization if they do not feel that they are being given the opportunity to develop. Top talent, whether in an innovation or management role, have incredible potential to make great things happen for an organization.
Creating a mentoring program for high-potential employees that gives them one-on-one guidance from senior leaders can help to build the engagement of these talented employees, give them the opportunity to develop, and increase their retention in the organization. Diversity mentoring : One of the top ways to innovate is by bringing in new ideas from senior employees and leaders from underrepresented groups e. Who is an underrepresented group depends on the industry sector and country.
In many Western countries, women and ethnic minorities are significantly underrepresented in executive positions and boards of directors. In some traditionally gender segregated occupations, such as education and nursing , however, women may be the dominant gender in the workforce. Mentors from underrepresented groups can empower employees from underrepresented groups to increase their confidence to take on higher-responsibility tasks and prepare for leadership roles. By developing employees from diverse groups, this can give the organization access to new ideas, new ways of looking at problems, and new perspectives.
This also brings cultural awareness and intercultural dialogue into the workplace. These relationships tend to lead to success within the organization and increased job satisfaction. However, when paired with majority mentees, their perceived worth automatically increases due solely to the majority status of their mentees. Minority mentors tend to impart emotional benefits onto their mentees. Reverse mentoring : While mentoring typically involves a more experienced, typically older employee or leader providing guidance to a younger employee, the opposite approach can also be used.
In the s, with the rise of digital innovations, Internet applications and social media , in some cases, new, young employees are more familiar with these technologies than senior employees in the organizations. The younger generations can help the older generations to expand and grow towards current trends. Everyone has something to bring to the table, this creates a "two way street" within companies where younger employees can see the larger picture, and senior employees can learn from young employees.
Knowledge transfer mentoring : Employees must have a certain set of skills in order to accomplish the tasks at hand. Mentoring is a great approach to help employees get organized, and give them access to an expert that can give feedback, and help answer questions that they may not know where to find answers to.
Mentorship provides critical benefits to individuals as well as organizations. Although mentorship can be important for an individual's career advancement, in the United States it historically has been most apparent in relation to the advancement of women and minorities in the workplace. Until recent decades, American men in dominant ethnic groups gained most of the benefits of mentorship without consciously identifying it as an advancement strategy. American women and minorities, in contrast, more pointedly identified and pursued mentorship in the second half of the twentieth century as they sought to achieve the professional success they had long been denied.
In a study, Margaret Cussler showed that, for each female executive she interviewed who did not own her own company, "something—or someone—gave her a push up the ladder while others halted on a lower rung.
These publications noted the many specific benefits provided by mentorship, which included insider information, education, guidance, moral support, inspiration, sponsorship, an example to follow, protection, promotion, the ability to "bypass the hierarchy," the projection of the superior's "reflected power," access to otherwise invisible opportunities, and tutelage in corporate politics. This literature also showed the value of these benefits.
A Harvard Business Review survey of 1, top executives published in , for example, showed that most had been mentored or sponsored and that those who received such assistance reported higher income, a better education, a quicker path to achievement, and more job satisfaction than those who did not. Research in the s, partly in response to a study by Daniel Levinson ,  led some women and African Americans to question whether the classic "white male" model was available or customary for people who are newcomers in traditionally white male organizations.
In Edgar Schein described multiple roles for successful mentors. He said that some of these roles require the teacher to be in a position of power such as "opener of doors, protector, sponsor and leader. Capability frameworks encourage managers to mentor staff. A manager can mentor their own staff, but more likely will mentor staff in other parts of their organisation, staff in special programs such as graduate and leadership programs , staff in other organisations or members of professional associations.
Mentoring covers a range of roles. Articulating these roles is useful not only for understanding what role you play, but also for writing job applications. Demonstrating how you go about mentoring needs a language of behaviours. Two of Schein's students, Davis and Garrison, undertook to study successful leaders of both genders and at least two races. Their research presented evidence for the roles of: cheerleader, coach, confidant, counsellor, developer of talent, "griot" oral historian for the organization or profession , guardian, guru, inspiration, master, "opener of doors", patron, role model, pioneer, "seminal source", "successful leader", and teacher.
Mosaic mentoring is based on the concept that almost everyone can perform one or another function well for someone else — and also can learn along one of these lines from someone else. The model is seen as useful for people who are "non-traditional" in a traditional setting, such as people of color and women in a traditionally white male organization.
The idea has been well received in medical education literature. Corporate mentoring programs are used by mid-size to large organizations to further the development and retention of employees. Mentoring programs may be formal or informal and serve a variety of specific objectives including acclimation of new employees, skills development, employee retention and diversity enhancement. Formal mentoring programs offer employees the opportunity to participate in an organized mentoring program. Mentoring profiles are completed as written forms on paper or computer or filled out via an online form as part of an online mentoring system.
Informal mentoring takes places in organizations that develop a culture of mentoring but do not have formal mentoring in place. These companies may provide some tools and resources and encourage managers to accept mentoring requests from more junior members of the organization.
A study of 1, employees found that "satisfaction with a mentoring relationship had a stronger impact on attitudes than the presence of a mentor, whether the relationship was formal or informal, or the design of a formal mentoring program. Fortune companies are also implementing formal mentoring programs on a global scale. Cardinal Health has had an enterprise-wide formal mentoring initiative in place since The initiative encompasses nine formal mentoring programs, some enterprise-wide and some limited to specific business segments and functions.
Goals vary by program, with some focused on employees facing specific challenges or career milestones and others enabling more open-ended learning and development. New-hire mentoring programs are set up to help new employees acclimate more quickly into the organization. It has been claimed that new employees who are paired with a mentor are twice as likely to remain in their job than those who do not receive mentorship. For example, the mentor gets to show leadership by giving back and perhaps being refreshed about their own work. The organization receives an employee that is being gradually introduced and shaped by the organization's culture and operation because they have been under the mentorship of an experienced member.
The person being mentored networks, becomes integrated easier in an organization, gets experience and advice along the way. In the organizational setting, mentoring usually "requires unequal knowledge",  but the process of mentorship can differ.
Bullis describes the mentoring process in the forms of phase models. Initially, the "mentee proves himself or herself worthy of the mentor's time and energy". Then cultivation occurs which includes the actual "coaching Next, under the phase of separation, "the mentee experiences more autonomy". Ultimately, there is more of equality in the relationship, termed by Bullis as Redefinition.
High-potential mentoring programs are used to groom up-and-coming employees deemed to have the potential to move up into leadership or executive roles. These programs tend to be smaller than more general mentoring programs and mentees must be selected based on a list of eligibility criteria to participate.